The antiquarian

Dugan Work Notes

The Antiquarian Research Update:  2009,  5/11/15

Complete 7/1/2015

Link Page to Dugan Comparison Page for Line Identification.

 

P#2 Dugan - Pompeian, Venetian & Japanese

Project Goals:

A. Study original documents or trade catalogs to define the different lines.

B. Study the rose bowls to ascertain if line differentiation is possible.

     To complete the project goals of proper identification and differentiation of Dugan Rose Bowls of Project P#2 it soon became apparent that the study would have to be expanded if we were have any chance to achieve any of our goals.  We had to include previous history of the manufacturing site, glass technology and manufacturing techniques, the progress or development of frit glass rose bowls in reference to Dugan Glass Co,  the interface of three or four different glass companies as well as the detail physical examination and analysis several rose bowls.  First, we started with our history. 

History of Indiana, PA. Glass Factory:

     The history of glass manufacture at Indiana, PA began several years before any involvement by Harry Northwood or Thomas Dugan.  The plant was built by local investors in 1892 and began operations on November 14, 1892 as the Indiana Glass Company.  The Indiana Glass Company plagued with problems, shut down in either late 1893 or early 1894.  In February 1896 the closed plant was leased for the next two years to Harry Northwood.  Within three weeks the plant was in operation under the direction of Harry Northwood.  When Harry arrived on site he was accompanied by Samuel Dugan, Sr., and his sons Thomas E. A. Dugan, Alfred Dugan and Samuel Dugan Jr.

The years from 1896 through 1899, The Northwood Co., operated the site at Indiana, PA successfully.  In 1896 they manufactured China, Glass and Lamps.  Their products were standard Northwood, blown into a mold glassware.  In 1897 Klondyke and Alaska patterns were introduced.  Other well known Northwood patterns such as Daisy and Fern in opalescent glass was known to be made at the Indiana, PA site.  The lines were just a continuation of work glass lines started in Elwood City.  Northwood had molds shipped to the Indiana, PA site from Elwood city.  In 1898 Northwood introduced Louis XV in Ivory ware. 

In September 1899 Northwood Company of Indiana, PA became part of the National Glass Company.  In October of the same year Harry and Carl Northwood and their families sailed for England.  The former owners of the Northwood Company were Thomas and Anne Dugan and Harry and Clara Elizabeth Northwood.  As the Northwood families left for England the Dugan family stayed in PA.                     

During the years of 1900 to 1903 the Indiana, PA site was operated by the National Glass Company.  It is important to note that during this time period all of the Northwood molds stayed at the site and were available for use by the National Glass Company.  The National Glass Company changed the name from the Northwood Company, Indiana, PA to the Northwood Glass Works of the National Glass Company.  So technically it was still Northwood Glass even though Harry Northwood was in England and not involved any way with the operation.  The plant continued to carry the Northwood name until 1904 when the Dugan Glass Company was formed.  Under National operations the Indiana site continued to make some of the patterns and colors developed by Northwood Co.     

When Harry Northwood left, Harry Barstow took over as Superintendent and Thomas E. A. Dugan (a long time Northwood employee) took over as factory manager.  Mr. Barstow left by August 1900 to become the President of the newly formed Jefferson Glass Company of Steubenville, OH.  Mr. Harry White Jr. succeeded Mr. Barstow as Superintendent.  Thomas E. A. Dugan succeeded Mr. Harry White as Superintendent.        

In 1901 in the G. Sommers and Co. catalog list a “Coralene” Rose Bowl.  Coralene normally refers to glass beads which are attached to a glass substructure.  In this case they were talking about Frit glass not true Coralene.  (See glass types for a more detailed description of Coralene and Frit glass.  Dugan Glass Company did some excellent Frit work during their latter operation of the plant.

National Glass Company management was coming apart during the years of 1900 to 1903.  Several key people left to work for other Glass firms or start their own.  By 1903 the National Glass Company was in serious financial difficult.  They decided to sell the Indiana, PA operations to generate needed cash.

In January 1904 the Dugan Glass Company became a reality.  The sale of the plant by National to Dugan included many molds as well as the current inventory of glass on hand.  The molds should have included the Northwood molds and National Glass molds as well. 

Dugan History:

     We must remember that Tom Dugan was a master glass maker in his own right and cousin to John Northwood of Stevens and Williams fame, who was also father of Harry Northwood.   Both families were full of master glass makers.  Thomas E. A. Dugan's was glass formula books shows he was experimenting iridizing techniques as early as 1902. 

In about 1904 Dugan Glass Company came out with three new lines of glass which was totally different than any other glass lines manufactured in the USA.  These lines were produced until about 1908.  Some of it was a true Iridescent Art Glass which had no relationship with carnival glass which Dugan / Diamond did make in quantity at a latter time.  The new glass lines were different than the earlier Victorian glass or the soon to be popular Carnival glass.  I was unlike Tiffany in both shape and iridescence.  The glass was most similar to the art glass being produced by the great Bohemian glass houses of the Art Nouveau period.  It had distinct Arts and Crafts / Christopher Dresser influence.  The glass was mouth blown into a mold and hand finished.  I was pinched, twisted, stretched and distorted.  The surface was not etched or engraved decorated but had patterns or textures of different frit glass and iridizing treatments.  The glass has confused experts on both sides of the Atlantic.  It is classified and pictured in the 1989 Passau Museum Catalogue as "Unidentified Bohemian," and as such it also appears pictured in Robert Truitt's Bohemian Glass I.

Dugan new glass lines were called Pompeian (1904), Venetian (1905) and Japanese (1906).  The dates listed by the glass line names are dates that a trade publication or a distributor catalogue listed the associated line.  These dates are not necessarily their introduction date, then again it may be, we just don’t know.  At the time this article was written glass collectors have not been able to differentiate between these lines.  The same shape appears across all three lines with different treatment.  It may be that Dugan did not distinguish between lines.  The names may have been nothing more than a marketing ploy, again we don’t know.  These lines have yielded several new and innovative pieces of glass including rose bowls.  There is a fourth rose bowl pattern not a line, named Honeycomb know by the pattern that was blown into the glass approximately (1905 or 1906).  Honeycomb pattern shares commonality of treatment with Venetian lines but is truly not a member of that line.  As far as we know the Honeycomb pattern came into being near the end of frit glass production and the beginning of carnival glass.  Thus Honeycomb pattern was also produced in Carnival approximately 1909.    

Several researchers have described how these pieces of glass were made.  To truly understand how Dugan art glass was made we must first discuss what methods were use before 1904, of which Tom Dugan would have been very familiar with.

Previous known and used technology

Frit glass, Frit Glass is a fine crushed glass that is applied to piece of glass either as and accent to original base glass or as an over all decorative coating.  Frit glass can have the consistency small pieces of glass to very small pieces and finally to powder.  On Rose Bowls, Frit Glass accenting was used by Northwood Glass Company, Northwood/Dugan usually as a lip and crimp area accenting normally in conjunction with an Opalescent glass coating.  The Dugan glass company used it as an over all decorations.  Jefferson Glass Works was also known to use Frit Glass on the edges of some of their glass.

When a piece of glass was almost finished the lip or crimp area of a rose bowl as an example while still hot was dipped in color frit.  The piece of glass was then returned to the Glory Hole and melted (warmed in) the frit into the piece of glass.  Frit glass can be applied to the overall body of a gather of glass (see below) or to raised optics which are later warmed in. 

Photographic courtesy of Dave Fry.

Optics:  internal optics normally used in the production of brilliant (clear) glass to refract light (make sparkles).  Internal Optics can be in the form of ribs, waves or grooves that are formed into molted surface of glass then reheated or covered so as to become a structure within the glass.  One type of this is overshot glass.  External Optics, include glass such as Coin Spot, Hobnail, Bull’s Eye and etc.

Opalescent glass, Northwood’s "Opaline Brocade" is an example of a specialized glass (Heat reactive) being applied over a transparent glass, in a pattern.  When reheated it turns a milky color highlighting a pattern or area.

Granite ware, Northwood introduced this glass line in 1892.  It consisted of molten glass gathered on a blow pipe then the gather was rolled in blue and white glass frit then worked over a marver to incorporate the glass frit into the base gather of molten glass.  The glass was then blown into a spot mold, Opalescent glass may have been added to the crimp area then the piece would be reheated at the glory hole to active the Opalescent glass.  Next the piece would annealed by being placed in the lehr.

Chemical Iridizing, Thomas E. A. Dugan own notebooks prove that he was experimenting with chemical iridizing in 1902.  There are two type of Iridescent glass the most common is when a chemical treatment is applied to hot glass as in the case of Carnival Glass.  Please see Carnival Glass for detail description. 

The second form is when the Iridescent Glass is created in batch or in-the-mix by means of formula and manufacturing Technique.  Examples of this type of glass is Tiffany, Fredrick Carder. The in batch method predate Carnival glass by as much as 25 years.  Yet in 1877, T. Webb introduced Bronze glass.  The patent was applied for on August 29, 1877 and granted on February 27, 1878.  Bronze glass was a form of iridescent finish made to compete with Bohemian products of that time.  This treatment was to mimic Roman and other ancient glass, being excavated at the time, which had a natural iridescence due to soil contact.  Bronze glass is a close cousin to American carnival glass.  It is produced by exposure of the glass in a semi-molten state to fumes of chloride of tin, alone or mixed, with the nitrates of barium and strontium.  This was not a in batch or in-the-mix glass but rather surface treatment.  Many glasshouses used various iridizing effects during the early to mid 1900s.

Dugan's general application of previous technologies

     Dugan’s workers would take a base gather of glass then work it into a cylindrical shape on the marver.  It then rolled in frit of a different color, the size of the frit would depend upon the effect they were trying to obtain.  If the frit was powder it would give an over all color effect if it was a larger size it would be more like Granite ware. 

After the first application of frit the gather was then blown into a spot mold which would make an optic on the outside of the glass.  The glass was then rolled in a second frit of colored glass and warmed in.  The optic become an internal optic effect the second frit application remains on the exterior as a vertical stripe or spot.  The glass was then blown into its final shape in a second mold.   The piece was then hand finished by pinching twisting and etc.   By varying the frit color and size, number of applications of frit and how often the piece is re-warmed would produce a large array of finished goods.  We have identified Dugan's uses of three different internal optic pattern spot molds for rose bowls. 

 

Introduction Order of Northwood, National and Dugan, Rose Bowl Morphology.

 Background

     As per Heacock, Measell and Wiggins: the Granite ware line was shown in 1892 before the Ellwood City, PA plant was in operation.  The original trial production run had to be produced at Martins Ferry, OH.  All of Northwood’s production would have been transferred to Ellwood City, PA from Martins Ferry, no latter than 1893.  It would have then been moved to Indiana, PA from Ellwood City in 1896.

Northwood Glass Pattern Introduction:

Royal Ivy:  1890, Martins Ferry, OH.  No collar base used.  N/A

Royal Oak:  1890, Martins Ferry, OH.  Rose bowl production unknown.  

Jewel AKA Threaded Swirl:  1890, Martins Ferry, OH.  3.5” H x 4.25” W, with a 2.56” opening and a 2.5” base.

Granite ware (blue base glass with opal frit):  1892, Martins Ferry, OH, this line did not go into mass production until 1893 in Ellwood City, PA. Expected to be ?4.5” H x ?3.0” W, with a ?2.0” opening and a ?2.13” base.  The same as Opaline Brocade, AKA Spanish Lace.  After multi year search, no examples of Northwood produced Granite Ware Rose Bowls have been found.   We are force to conclude none were produced, until proven other wise.     

Daisy and Fern:  1894, Ellwood City, PA., 4.5” H x 3.0” W, with a 2.0” opening and a 2.0" to 2.13” base.  The same as Opaline Brocade, AKA Spanish Lace.  

Opaline Brocade, AKA Spanish Lace:  1898, Indiana, PA. Nominal 4.5” H x 3.0” W, with a 2.0” opening and 2.0"   2.13” base.

Inverted Fan and Feather (non carnival):  1899 Indiana PA.  No collar base N/A

 

US Frit Glass Rose Bowl Chronology

Northwood Glass Co.

First US Frit glass rose bowl (1892):  Northwood’s Granite Ware, has no internal optic, usually blue base glass reported in clear (flint) glass base also with white/opal frit.

 National Glass Co.

Upon the sale of Northwood’s Indiana, PA plant in August 1899, National continues to operate the site and make Northwood’s rose bowl patterns:  include Daisy and Fern, Opaline Brocade, Opal Open and Inverted Fan and Feather.

Second US Frit glass rose bowl: National Glass Co. "Oriental" spherical rose bowl,  with normal 8 crimps, no side pinches.  These rose bowls are not Venetian 1904, Pompeian 1905 or Japanese

Dugan Glass Co.

Third US Frit glass rose bowl: Dugan Glass Co. "Venetian 1904, Pompeian 1905 or Japanese 1906 and certainly Honeycomb 1906-1909".

 

Northwood Glass Co.

Granite ware

Northwood First Frit glass rose bowl was introduced in 1892:  as Northwood’s Granite Ware, has no internal optic, usually blue base glass reported in clear (flint) glass base also with white/opal frit. 

Insert Northwood Granite Ware Ad here

Insert Northwood Granite Ware  Photos here

 

Granite Ware1892, Martins Ferry, OH, this line did not go into mass production until 1893 in Ellwood City, PA.,  and 1896, Indiana, PA   3.75" H x 4.25” W, with a 1.75” opening and a 2.0 to 2.13” Base common frit glass rose bowls, expecte 8 crimps, no internal optic and no opalescent glass.  After multi year search, no examples of Northwood produced Granite Ware Rose Bowls have been found.   We are force to conclude none were produced, until proven other wise.     

National Glass Co.

     Upon the sale of Northwood’s Indiana, PA plant in August 1899, National continues to operate the site and makes some of Northwood’s rose bowl patterns:  include Daisy and Fern, Opaline Brocade, Opal Open and Inverted Fan and Feather.

Second frit glass rose bowl (1901): National Glass Co. Oriental spherical rose bowl,  with normal 8 crimps, no side pinches.  This rose bowl did incorporate the use of an internal optic.  These rose bowls are not Venetian 1904, Pompeian 1905 or Japanese 1906 and certainly not Honeycomb 1906-1909.

 

    

      From G. Somers and Company, Catalogue dated March 4, 1901

The rose bowl "7" above, is described as “Coralene” glass a term usually reserved for wares decorated with minuet glass beads or powdered glass (frit) which is fired on.

 

Oriental Line

      

National - Oriental Line Rose Bowls (often incorrectly attributed to Dugan)

The Oriental Line Rose Bowls are known to have Blue, Clear / Flint, and Green base glass.  It may possible exists in Vaseline.

 

Oriental Line:  1901, Indiana, PA  3.75" H x 4.25” W, with a 1.75” opening and a 2.50” Base common frit glass rose bowls, 8 crimps, internal optic and no opalescent glass treatment.  The frit application was originally described as “Coralene” glass in a G. Sommers and Co. catalog dated March 4, 1901.  The manufacturing sequencing and the use of the frit glass application was not always completed in such as manner to make a vertical stripe as is commonly seen on Dugan's  Pompeian and Venetian line rose bowls.  As an example the blue and white rose bowl above does not show a vertical stripe while the clear glass rose bowl on the right does.  

The clear rose bowl with the ruby frit was probably blown into a cylinder spot optic mold then the frit was applied by rolling on to the high areas of the molten glass cylinder.  After frit application, the glass cylinder with frit was reheated transferring the optic to the inside of the cylinder.  A second application of frit glass could have been applied to the overall surface of the glass cylinder.  After said glass cylinder reheating the cylinder was then blown into the finish spot mold to obtain the final spherical shape.  The rose bowl would then be removed from the blow pipe, snapped up by the marie and crimped.  They it would have been placed in the Lehr. 

In the case of the blue Oriental rose bowl above, the glass cylinder was reheated transferring the optic to the inside prior to the frit glass being applied.  All the other manufacturing steps would be the same.             

National’s frit glass from 1900-1902 (as per H. M. & W.) “uses a single color fit (usually opal or blue), while others combined opal / white, blue frit or add ruby as a third color.  The base glass is clear (flint), blue or green so far found. 

In 1901 the advertisement above, the rose bowl as well as various other pieces of glass were shown with internal optic of vertical ribs, similar to Venetian pattern.

The Writer original theorized that the Dugan’s Venetian, Pompeian & Japanese evolved from the Northwood molds was incorrect.  Base on data collected it would appear that morphology of spot molds are not from Northwood but as follows: 

It appears the line developed from National Glass  1901 Oriental Line which appears to be a new mold optic mold and finish mold. 

Dugan's Pompeian and Venetian Lines are directly from National Glass Oriental line Optic  mold and finished mold. 

The Japanese line introduced an new optic mold (hemispherical spot optic) while still using the Oriental Line finished mold. 

The Honeycomb rose bowls (non carnival) used the same optic mold as the Oriental, Pompeian and Venetian but had a new finished mold.  The carnival version did not use a optic mold just the finish mold.     

The Tri-Fold Carnival rose bowl uses a new different 20 spiral optic mold but most likely used the same finish mold.

One other rose bowl of interest is a transactional Venetian Line rose bowl which does not use an internal optic mold.  It still used the normal finished mold.  The Frit glass on the surface is a bit finer or has been reheated longer finer smoother finish.  Also this rose bowl is usually found iridized.

 

National’s Oriental Line 1901, speculative manufacturing sequence:

When frit glass vertical bar pattern is produced:  (Note, every reheat is not stated)

#1 Glass gathered on blow pipe and worked slightly to make glass cylinder.  The gather is reheated.

#2 Glass is blown into a spot Optic mold (of 20 vertical scalloped shaped bars) to impart optic.  Glass is reheated. 

#3 Glass cylinder's raised with the raised optic pattern is rolled in frit glass on marver. 

#4 Glass is reheated and the Optic pattern transfers to the inside surface.

#5 A second frit glass application usually of a single color was applied then the glass was reheated to lightly warm in secondary frit glass.

#6 Glass is blown into finish spot mold which imparts finish spherical shape.

#7 Glass rose bowl is removed from blow pipe and snapped up by the marie and now crimped with crimping tool.

#8 The rose bowl is moved to the Lehr for annealing.

 

When frit glass vertical bar pattern is not produced:  (Note, every reheat is not stated)

#1 Glass gathered on blow pipe and worked slightly to make glass cylinder.  The gather is reheat.

#2 Glass is blown into a spot Optic mold (of 20 vertical scalloped shaped bars) to impart optic.   

#3 Glass is reheated and the Optic pattern transfers to the inside surface. 

#4 Glass cylinder is rolled in frit glass on marver and reheated warming the frit glass onto the surface of the base glass.

#5 Glass is blown into finish spot mold which imparts finish spherical shape.

#6 Glass rose bowl is removed from blow pipe and snapped up by the marie and now crimped with crimping tool

#7 The rose bowl is moved to the Lehr for annealing.

 

Dugan Glass Co.

Dugan's Frit glass rose bowls are:

Pompeian: 1904, Indiana, PA.  Nominal, 4.12” H x 4.25” W with a 1.5” opening 2.50” base.

Venetian: 1905, Indiana, PA.  Nominal, 4.12” H x 4.25” W with a 1.5” opening 2.50” base.

Japanese: 1906, Indiana, PA.  Nominal, 4.12” H x 4.25” W with a 1.5” opening 2.50” base.

Honeycomb (non Carnival): 1905 -1906, Indiana, PA. 3.75” H x 4.25” W with a 1.75” opening and a 2.50” base.

Honeycomb (Carnival):  1909, Indiana, PA  Color include marigold and peach Opalescent.  No frit glass used on the Carnival pieces.  3.75” H x 4.25” W with a 1.75” opening and a 2.50” base.

Note, on Height and width measurements of Pompeian, Venetian, Japanese line and Honeycomb rose bowls note the word "nominal".  These rose bowl were highly manipulated by hand they very greatly especially on width measurements.      

 

Pompeian Line

From 1906 G. Sommers and Co. catalogue

 

            

Dugan - Pompeian Line Rose Bowls

 Amethyst "Wine" left and a reddish brown "Ruby" right both heavily iridized. 

 

Dugan’s Pompeian Line 1904(Same spot optic mold (20 vertical bars) as Oriental Line.  New spot finish mold introduced but based on same size collar marie as Oriental Line) 

Speculative manufacturing sequence: (Note, every reheat is not stated)

#1 Glass gathered on blow pipe and worked slightly to make glass cylinder.  The gather is reheated.

#2 Glass is blown into a spot Optic mold (of 20 vertical scalloped shaped bars) to impart optic.  Glass is reheated. 

#3 Glass cylinder's with the raised optic pattern is rolled in frit glass on marver.  Many times amber frit was used.  

#4 Glass is reheated and the Optic pattern transfers to the inside surface.

#5 A second frit glass application usually of a single color was applied by rolling, then the glass was reheated to lightly warm in secondary frit glass.

#6 Glass is next blown into finish spot mold which imparts finish spherical shape.

#7 Glass rose bowl is removed from blow pipe and snapped up by the marie and now crimped and side pinched by hand.

#8 The glass receives a light to heavy iridescent coating which is applied by spray or fume method.  Most command iridescent coating is a silver coating.  

#9 The rose bowl is moved to the Lehr for annealing.

 

Venetian Line

   

    From Butler Brothers, Catalogue 1905 (left) and 1906 (right).

 

               

Dugan - Venetian Line Rose Bowls

Dugan’s Venetian Line 1905:  (Same spot optic mold (20 vertical bars) and finish mold as Pompeian Line)

Speculative manufacturing sequence: (Note, every reheat is not stated)

#1 Glass gathered on blow pipe and worked slightly to make glass cylinder.  The gather is reheated.

#2 Glass is blown into a spot Optic mold (of 20 vertical scalloped shaped bars) to impart optic.  Glass is reheated. 

#3 Glass cylinder's with the raised optic pattern is rolled in frit glass on marver.  Many times amber or silver frit was used.  

#4 Glass is reheated and the Optic pattern transfers to the inside surface.

#5 A second frit glass application usually of a single color was applied by rolling, then the glass was reheated to lightly warm in secondary frit glass.

#6 Glass is next blown into finish spot mold which imparts finish spherical shape.

#7 Glass rose bowl is removed from blow pipe and snapped up by the marie and now crimped and side pinched by hand.

#8 This step is omitted on Venetian and Japanese Line.   The glass receives a light iridescent coating which is applied by spray or fume method.  Most command iridescent coating is a silver coating.    

#9 The rose bowl is moved to the Lehr for annealing. 

 

 Japanese Line

   

  Left, from 1906 G. Sommers and Co. catalogue.  Right from fall Butler Brothers catalogue 1906.

Please note on bottom row left catalogue you see what is now called “Starburst” pattern from the Japanese line.  The right ad indicates it is a mix of Japanese and Venetian line vases.  It appears to the writer they are all Venetian line except the upper right which from the Japanese line (non star  burst).  The bottom row left and center may be from the Japanese line also, again non Starburst.  

 

       

Dugan - Japanese Line Rose Bowls Starburst on the left a normal Japanese Line RB on the right.

Above photo of a Dugan Japanese line rose bowl, modern collector name Starburst.  The name is accredited to Alfredo Villanueva-Collado.

 

 

The blue spots on the inside is the hemispherical spot optic.

   

Dugan’s Japanese Line 1906(Starburst uses new hemispherical spot optic mold.  Standard Japanese line also has the same hemispherical spot optic mold.   

Speculative manufacturing sequence: (Note, every reheat is not stated)

#1 Glass is gathered on blow pipe and worked slightly to make glass cylinder.

#2 Now the glass cylinder is rolled in frit glass on marver.

#3 This step is omitted on the Japanese Line. Glass is blown into a spot Optic mold, to impart optic pattern.

#4 This step also is omitted on the Japanese Line. The glass cylinder with optic is rolled in secondary frit, many times amber or silver frit.

#5 This step is omitted on the Japanese Line. The glass is now reheated and worked so the Optic pattern transfers to the inside surface.

#6 The Glass is next blown into finish mold which imparts finish round shape.

#7 The rose bowl in now pinched crimped by hand.

#8 This step is omitted on Venetian and Japanese Line.   The glass is snapped-up receives a light iridescent coating which is applied by spray.

#9 The rose bowl is moved to the Lehr for annealing.

 

Honeycomb

                

Dugan - Honeycomb Rose Bowls

The first two are frit glass with an internal bar optic.  The far right is carnival glass no optic.  The Center item is sometimes identified as a spittoon. 

 

Dugan’s Honeycomb rose bowls 1905-1906 (new finish spot mold used honeycomb pattern used)  then finished in both the Venetian and Pompeian Line manner and lastly in Carnival.  Illustrated in Butler Brothers catalogs. 

Non-carnival, Honeycomb rose bowls (Same spot optic mold (20 internal vertical bars) and new finish mold used with honeycomb pattern.)

Speculative manufacturing sequence: (Note, every reheat is not stated)

#1 Glass is gathered on blow pipe and worked slightly to make glass cylinder.

#2 Now the glass cylinder is rolled in frit glass on marver.

#3 Glass is blown into a spot Optic mold, to impart optic pattern.

#4 The glass cylinder with optic is rolled in secondary frit, many times amber or silver frit.

#5 The glass is now reheated and worked so the Optic pattern transfers to the inside surface.

#6 The Glass is next blown into finish mold which imparts finish round shape.

#7 This step may not always be used on Honeycomb rose bowls.  The glass is snapped-up receives a light iridescent coating which is applied by spray.

#8 The rose bowl is moved to the Lehr for annealing. 

 

Carnival, Honeycomb rose bowls (No spot optic mold used only the new finished mold with the honeycomb pattern.)

Speculative manufacturing sequence: (Note, every reheat is not stated)

#1 Glass is gathered on blow pipe and worked slightly to make glass cylinder.

#2 The glass cylinder is now reheated and glass is next blown into finish mold which imparts finish round shape and the external honeycomb pattern.

#3 The glass is snapped-up receives a heavy iridescent coating which is applied by spray.

#4 The rose bowl is moved to the Lehr for annealing.

 

Glass Colors & Treatments:

National Glass Co. and Dugan Glass Co. Rose Bowls from Indiana, PA.

From left to right:  #1 & #2 National Oriental, #3 & #4 Dugan Pompeian, #5, #6 & #7 Dugan Venetian, #8 Japanese - Starburst, #9 & #10 Dugan Honeycomb in frit glass and #11 Dugan Honeycomb in Carnival glass.   

Below, I have collected information from Glass distributors or publications reprints from Dugan/Diamond by Heacock, Measell and Wiggins as well as add my observations.

Oriental Line (National 1901):

Colors of base glass observed:  Clear (flint), Green, and Blue with frit glass. 

Colors observed:   Clear (flint), Green, and Blue with frit glass.

Treatment:  None listed and none observed so far.

Pompeian (1904):  Info from a reporter from the monthly Housefurnisher:  China, Glass and Pottery Review, 1905

Colors base glass:  Wine, Ruby info from 1906 G. Sommers and Co.

Colors observed: Amethyst and a reddish brown (ruby)   

Treatment: Silver Iridescent, overall effect, info from China, Glass and Lamp and the 1906 G. Sommers and Co.  This treatment is also documented in a letter from 9/15/1905, from the Dugan firm, to the National Association of Manufactures of Pressed and Blown Glass “kind of silver appearance” which has been made by the company”.

Venetian (1905):  Info from a reporter from the monthly Housefurnisher:  China, Glass and Pottery Review, 1905

Colors base glass:  Blue, Green, & Amethyst Info from Butler Brothers 1906 catalogue.  Canary is listed in an unidentified add.   

Colors observed:  Clear (flint), Blue, Green, Canary & Amethyst

Treatment“Allover oxidized iridescent effect, info from 1906 Butler Brothers Catalogue.  On a second Butler Brothers catalogue is list "beautiful iridescent silver effect".  But in a 1906 G. Sommers and Co. ad it states, “Allover gold and silver illuminations”, This probable does not necessarily mean iridescent as seen on the Pompeian Line.  It probably is referencing the use of amber or silver frit.  Also this ad has a mixture of both Venetian and Japanese Lines thus may be unreliable. 

Japanese (1906): 

Colors base glass:  Blue, Green and Opalescent (white / opal glass Frit) Info from Butler Brothers fall 1906.  Note, this ad has a mixture of both Venetian and Japanese Lines thus may be unreliable.  G. Sommers and Co. catalogue listed in 1906 three unnamed colors for the Japanese line. 

Colors observed:  Blue and Green 

Treatment“Allover gold and silver illuminations”, info from 1906 G. Sommers and Co.  This probable does not mean iridescent as seen on the Pompeian Line.  It probably is referencing the use of amber or silver frit.  Also this ad has a mixture of both Venetian and Japanese Lines thus may be unreliable. 

Honeycomb Non-carnival (1905 / 1906):

Colors of base glass observed:  Clear (flint), green, blue with frit and internal optic some examples are sometimes found with light iridescent finish (silver sheen).  One example known in milk glass with ruby frit. 

Treatment:  In some cases very light silver iridescent overall effect observed. 

Honeycomb Carnival (1909):

Color of base glass:  Academic since heavy metallic coating obscures base glass color.

Treatment:  A typical carnival coating found in Marigold and Peach opalescent.

 

Similar National Glass Co. Rose Bowls

National - Oriental Line Rose Bowls compared to other National Glass Rose Bowl

           

National purchased the Model Flint Glass Company of Albany, IN 1899 the same year that they purchased Northwood Company of Indiana, PA.  The photo on the right is a download from EBay of a Model Flint Glass rose bowl.  The author has yet to acquire this rose bowl.  It is currently on my purchase list.  A similar rose bowl can be seen illustrated in Johanna Billings book, Collectible Glass Rose Bowls, on page 109, Fig. 362.  Ms. Billing has miss labeled the lines but additional information has been published since her book was written.  One can easily identified the Indiana, PA, Orientals from the Model Flint version.  First the rose bowls produced at Indian PA, all have an internal bar optic and they are known to come in Blue, Clear / Flint or Green Base glass.  The reader will note the Model Flint Version does not have an inter optic and the color is not green but a Vaseline.  Model Flint's Vaseline is more yellow in nature and Dugan has a true green.  You can also see this color difference illustrated in Ms. Billing's Book also.              

Closing: 

For Dugan standard glass lines, in 1905 a new rose bowl pattern called Intaglio, Palm and Scroll was introduced.  In 1905-06 Victor (known as Jeweled Heart by collectors), Eric (now called Beaded Opals) was introduced.  In 1907 Dugan catalogues uses the Diamond-D mark.  The same year the Fan and Filigree lines were introduced.   In 1908 five new patterns were introduced. 

In 1913 Thomas E. A. Dugan and Alfred Dugan had left the plant for a new venture in Lonaconing, Maryland.  Alfred Dugan rejoined the company in March 1915.  Dugan/Diamond produced iridescent ware from about 1902 until late into 1920s, with heaviest production from 1909 into the1920s. 

Diamond Glass Company continued to operate until June 1931 when the plant was a total loss to fire.

One single document separating or clarifying the individual lines dose not exist or has eluded us so far.  In the period advertisements there is a great deal of truth and illustrated intent but there is also some pure sales hype.  We are comfortable in our division or separations of the Dugan production line.  We are able to support our conclusion base on original historical documents, intent illustrated within said documents.  Detail examination of the rose bowls which illustrate progressive changes or evolution of treatment, design and style of the glass.  Click the link there to see our (Dugan Glass Comparison Page LINK) it visually illustrates the differences.

General Notes to me:

     I am looking at obtaining more information to separate out Northwood’s original versions, NONE FOUND.  I also need to obtain an original Northwood Graniteware rose bowl (if one exists) as well as a National #575 Venetian Line rose bowl.

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